Thursday, September 30, 2004

Alliterative Prose

Prose that uses alliteration and some of the techniques of alliterative verse. Notable examples are from Old English and Middle English, including works by the Anglo-Saxon writer Aelfric and the so-called Katherine Group of five Middle English devotional works.

Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Chile, The northern desert

This region experiences an aridity that is primarily caused by the dry subsidence created by the South Pacific high pressure cell and the stabilizing action of the cold Peru Current. Although the air along the coast is abnormally humid, it never reaches saturation point; at most, there is a development of coastal fogs (garúa or camanchaca). Besides the lack of rain,

Monday, September 27, 2004

Qurayyat, Al-

Mintaqah (province), western Northern region, northwestern Saudi Arabia. It is bordered by the manatiq (provinces) of al-Hudud ash-Shamaliyah to the northeast, al-Jawf to the east, and Tabuk to the south, and by Jordan on the north. Al-Qurayyat fronts the Gulf of Aqaba on the west. The mintaqah is mostly upland plateau with rock and gravel and is covered with grass and shrub that are used

Friday, September 24, 2004

Joule, James Prescott

Joule studied with the

Thursday, September 23, 2004


Russian  Novgorod-seversky,  also spelled  Novgorod-severskij,   city, Chernihiv oblast (province), northern Ukraine. The city, now a tourist centre, is believed to date from the early 11th century. From 1098 it was the capital of Novhorod-Siverskyy principality, which defended the Russian nation from incursions by nomadic tribes from the steppe regions. There are many old buildings in the city, including the 17th-century Cathedral of the Assumption

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Household, Geoffrey

Household was educated at Clifton College in Bristol (1914–19) and at Magdalen College at Oxford (1919–22), where he won honours

Monday, September 20, 2004


Also called  gravity meter  sensitive device for measuring variations in the Earth's gravitational field, useful in prospecting for oil and minerals. In one form, it consists of a weight suspended from a spring; variations in gravity cause variations in the extension of the spring. A number of different mechanical and optical schemes have been developed to measure this deflection, which in


Formerly (1931–61)  Voroshilovsk , or (1961–92)  Kommunarsk  city, Luhansk oblast (province), eastern Ukraine. It lies along the railway from Luhansk to Debaltsevo. Alchevsk was founded in 1895 with the establishment of the Donetsko-Yuryevsky ironworks. The plant has developed into a large, integrated ironworks and steelworks, which was expanded greatly in the 1950s and '60s. The city is a major bituminous-coal mining centre, and there are

Sunday, September 19, 2004


Pythagoras migrated in his youth to Rhegium. He made a statue of Philoctetes, noted for the physical

Saturday, September 18, 2004


Also spelled  Khakas, or Hakas,   people who have given their name to Khakassia republic in central Russia. The general name Khakass encompasses five Turkic-speaking groups that differ widely in their ethnic origin as well as in their culture and everyday life: the Kacha, Sagay (Sagai), Beltir, Kyzyl, and Koybal. Before the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Kacha were seminomadic pastoralists raising cattle,

Friday, September 17, 2004

Roman Religion, Religious art

A vast gallery of architecture, sculpture, numismatics, painting, and mosaics illustrates Roman religion and helps to fill the gaps left by the fragmentary, though extensive, literary and epigraphic record. Starting with primitive statuettes and terra-cotta temple decorations, this array eventually included masterpieces such as the Apollo of Veii. Other works

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Syria, The state of the arts

Following World War I, drawing was taught in the schools, and talented artists began to emerge. There is a faculty of fine arts

Wednesday, September 15, 2004


Israel's earliest sanctuary was a simple tent within which, it was believed,

John I Tzimisces

Descended from an aristocratic Armenian family, John was related through his mother to the general, and later emperor, Nicephorus II

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Raynal, Guillaume-thomas, Abbé De

Raynal was educated by the Jesuits and as a young man joined the order, but after going to Paris to work for the church he gave up religious life in favour of writing. He established himself as a writer with two historical works, one

Pacific Ocean, Salinity

The salinity patterns of the surface waters of the Pacific are influenced largely by wind and by rainfall and evaporation patterns. The waters within the belt of calms and variable winds near the equator have lower salinities than those in the trade-wind belts. In the equatorial belt, relatively large amounts of rain fall and little evaporation occurs both because

Saturday, September 11, 2004

Abraham Lincoln Battalion

A force of volunteers from the United States who served on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War from January 1937 until November 1938. All seven International Brigades (q.v.)—each composed of three or more battalions—were formed by the Comintern (Communist International), beginning in late 1936, and all were disbanded by late 1938 as the war neared an end. Like the European battalions,

Friday, September 10, 2004

Biblical Literature, Malachi

The Book of Malachi, the last of the Twelve (Minor) Prophets, was written by an anonymous writer called Malachi, or “my messenger.” Perhaps written from about 500–450 BCE, the book is concerned with spiritual degradation, religious perversions, social injustices, and unfaithfulness to the Covenant. Priests are condemned for failing to instruct the people on their Covenant responsibilities,

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Gabrieli, Giovanni

Various motets, among them In ecclesiis; madrigals in various collections; Canzoni e sonate (1615); Sacrae symphoniae, book 1 (1597), including the Sonata pian'e forte; Sacrae symphoniae (1615); Concerti di Andrea et di Giovanni Gabrieli a 6–16 voci (1587, containing pieces by Andrea).

Wednesday, September 08, 2004


In Greek mythology, the son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Leiriope; he was distinguished for his beauty. His mother was told that he would have a long life, provided he never looked upon his own features. His rejection, however, of the love of the nymph Echo or of his lover Ameinias drew upon him the vengeance of the gods. He fell in love with his own reflection in

Monday, September 06, 2004

Lewis, John

Reared in New Mexico by academically oriented parents, Lewis studied piano from childhood and, until 1942, anthropology and music at the University of

Kelley, Florence

Kelley graduated from Cornell University in 1882. After a year spent conducting evening classes for working women in Philadelphia, she traveled to Europe, where she attended the University

Saturday, September 04, 2004

Environmental Works, Groundwater sources

The value of an aquifer as a source of groundwater is a function of the porosity of the geologic stratum, or layer, of which it is formed. Water is withdrawn from an aquifer by pumping it out of a well or infiltration gallery. An infiltration gallery typically includes several horizontal perforated pipes radiating outward from the bottom of a large-diameter vertical

Friday, September 03, 2004


Also called  Dionysia,   in GrecoRoman religion, any of the several festivals of Bacchus (Dionysus), the wine god. They probably originated as rites of fertility gods. The most famous of the Greek Dionysia were in Attica and included the Little, or Rustic, Dionysia, characterized by simple, oldfashioned rites; the Lenaea, which included a festal procession and dramatic performances; the Anthesteria,

Thursday, September 02, 2004


Town, east-central Sudan. It lies along the right bank of the White Nile just below the latter's confluence with the Sobat River, 430 miles (690 km) south of Khartoum. The Junqali project, a joint Sudanese-Egyptian plan aimed at increasing agricultural production, diverts the waters of the White Nile from the As-Sudd swamps by means of a 224-mile (360-kilometre) canal that starts from the