Tuesday, August 31, 2004


New town (built after 1966), Craigavon district, Northern Ireland, southwest of Belfast. Craigavon new town was developed under the New Towns Act of 1965 as a commercial, light industrial, and residential centre linking the older towns of Lurgan and Portadown. It was named after James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, the first prime minister (1921–40) of Northern Ireland. The new town's planning

Monday, August 30, 2004

Rush–bagot Agreement

(1817), exchange of notes between Richard Rush, acting U.S. secretary of state, and Charles Bagot, British minister to the United States, that provided for the limitation of naval forces on the Great Lakes in the wake of the War of 1812. Each country was allowed no more than one vessel on Lake Champlain, one on Lake Ontario, and two on the upper lakes. Each vessel was restricted to a maximum


European interest in the region

Friday, August 27, 2004

Kerner, Justinus Andreas Christian

After the death of his father (1799), Kerner worked in a cloth factory until he was able to study medicine at Tübingen. There he met Uhland and spent most of his time reading and writing poetry. He became


In mathematics, an expression based on the derivative (q.v.) of a function, useful for approximating certain values of the function. The derivative of a function at the point x0, written as f¢(x0), is defined as the limit as Dx approaches 0 of the quotient Dy/Dx, in which Dy is f(x0 + Dx) - f(x0). Because the derivative is defined as the limit, the closer Dx is to 0, the closer will be the quotient to the derivative. Therefore,

Thursday, August 26, 2004


The frieze in

Tuesday, August 24, 2004

Sosa, Sammy

As a child, Sosa worked at a number of jobs, including shining shoes, to help support his family following his father's death. At the age

Monday, August 23, 2004


Officially  Kingdom of Spain , Spanish  España  or  Reino de España  country located in the extreme southwest of the European continent. It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with its smaller neighbour, Portugal. Spain is bordered on the west by Portugal; in the northeast it borders France, from which it is separated by the tiny principality of Andorra and by the great wall of the Pyrenees Mountains. Spain's

Saturday, August 21, 2004

Acts Of The Apostles, The

Abbreviation  Acts,  fifth book of the New Testament, a valuable history of the early Christian church. Acts was written in Greek, presumably by the Evangelist Luke, whose gospel concludes where Acts begins, namely, with Christ's Ascension into heaven. Acts was apparently written in Rome, perhaps between AD 70 and 90, though some think a slightly earlier date is also possible. After an introductory

Adam Of Bremen

Of Franconian origin, he was probably educated at the cathedral school in Bamberg but was introduced in 1066 or 1067 into the cathedral chapter at Bremen by Archbishop

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Conrad Von Hötzendorf, Franz (xaver Josef ), Graf (count)

Advancing rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian army, Conrad became chief of staff in 1906 on the recommendation of the heir to the throne,

Wednesday, August 18, 2004

Maha Kumbh Mela

About 110 million people, including more than 65,000 foreigners, gathered for the Hindu festival; this was believed to be the largest-ever congregation of people on the planet for a

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Atmospheric Sciences, Elements of cloud formation

The formation of cloud droplets and cloud ice crystals occurs associated with suspended aerosols of natural and anthropogenic origin, which are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere. In the absence of such aerosols, relative humidities much greater than 100 percent with respect to a flat surface are required for water vapour to condense spontaneously into liquid

Monday, August 16, 2004

Furniture, Carving

Whereas carving does not appear to

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Alexander Aetolus

Greek poet of Pleuron, in Aetolia. He was appointed by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Macedonian king of Egypt, to arrange and catalog the tragedies in the library at Alexandria. Nothing remains of his own tragic writing except the title of one play, Astragalistae (“The Dice Players”). A few fragments of his shorter writings are extant, including a brief appreciation of Euripides.

Saturday, August 14, 2004

Aterian Industry

Stone tool tradition of the Middle and Late Paleolithic, found widespread in the late Pleistocene throughout northern Africa. The Aterian people were among the first to use the bow and arrow. Aterian stone tools are an advanced African form of the European Levalloisian tradition, adapted to desert use. A distinctive Aterian sign is the formation of stems, or tangs,

Friday, August 13, 2004


In animal behaviour, specialized form of arboreal locomotion in which movement is accomplished by swinging from one hold to another by the arms. The process is highly developed in the gibbon and siamang, which are anatomically adapted for it in the length of their forelimbs, their long hooklike fingers, and the mobility of their shoulder joints. The South American

Wednesday, August 11, 2004

Shari'ah, Procedure and evidence

Traditionally, Shari'ah law was administered by the court of a single qadi, who was the judge of the facts as well as the law, although on difficult legal issues he might seek the advice of a professional jurist, or mufti. There was no hierarchy of courts and no organized system of appeals. Through his clerk (katib) the qadi controlled his court procedure, which was normally characterized

Ghana, Relief and drainage

Relief throughout Ghana is generally low, with altitudes nowhere exceeding 3,000 feet (900 metres). The southwestern, northwestern, and extreme northern parts of the country consist of a dissected peneplain—a land surface worn down by erosion to a nearly flat plain, later uplifted and again cut by erosion into hills and valleys or into flat uplands separated by valleys; it

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Heterogeneous Reaction

Any of a class of chemical reactions in which the reactants are components of two or more phases (solid and gas, solid and liquid, two immiscible liquids) or in which one or more reactants undergo chemical change at an interface, e.g., on the surface of a solid catalyst. The reaction of metals with acids, the electrochemical changes that occur in batteries and electrolytic

Monday, August 09, 2004

France, History Of, Political ideology

A strong element in Calvin's teaching was the importance of passive obedience to secular authority—an idea that became impossible for the Huguenots to support after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Afonso Iii

The younger son of Afonso II and Urraeca, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, Afonso emigrated and became, by marriage, count of Boulogne. His elder brother, Sancho II, was deposed by order of the pope, who granted Afonso

Literature, Yiddish.

Most of the Yiddish writings in 1997 appeared in the accessible form of short stories and sketches. Some, like Avraham Karpinovitsh's exciting tapestry Geven, geven amol Vilne ("There Was Once Upon a Time Vilna"), brought a wealth of memory to a retrospective--a reconstruction of the Jerusalem of the North. Yoysef Burg's companion volumes Tsvey veltn ("Two Worlds") and Tseviklte

Friday, August 06, 2004

Beneden, Pierre-joseph Van

After an apprenticeship with the pharmacist Louis Stoffels, van Beneden studied medicine at the University of Louvain. In 1835 he was appointed professor of zoology at the Catholic University of Louvain, where he remained throughout

Thursday, August 05, 2004

Irish Wolfhound

Tallest of all dog breeds, a keen-sighted hound used in Ireland for many years to hunt wolves and other game. An ancient breed, first mentioned about the 2nd century AD, it is similar in build to the greyhound but far more powerful. The female, which is smaller than the male, stands a minimum of 76 cm (30 inches) and weighs a minimum of 48 kg (105 pounds); male wolfhounds may greatly exceed this

Wednesday, August 04, 2004


Limassol's rise from a humble market town between the ancient settlements of Amathus and Curium took place at the end of the Byzantine Empire, when Richard I the Lion-Heart landed

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Middlesex, Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl Of

Cranfield spent his early career as a London merchant and financier. In 1612 he became acquainted with the lord privy seal, Henry Howard, earl of Northampton,

Sunday, August 01, 2004

William Of Saint-thierry

William studied under Anselm of Laon, a supporter of the philosophical theology (later called scholasticism) advanced by St. Anselm of Canterbury. After entering a Benedictine abbey in Reims in 1113, William became thoroughly versed


The son of an African-born mother, Gabriel grew up as the slave of Thomas H. Prosser. Gabriel became a deeply religious man, strongly influenced