Friday, April 30, 2004


At the close of the Middle Ages, academies

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Puerto Real

The massive body measured nearly 9 metres (30 feet) long and must have weighed four to five

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Human Evolution, Ngaloba man

In 1976 a skull was found in the Ngaloba beds at the Laetoli site in Tanzania. These beds consist of deposits of sandstone and clay stone that are preserved in patches; these patches are made up of redeposited detritus that has been eroded from the underlying Ndolanya and Laetoli beds. In the upper Ngaloba beds, stone tools have been recovered that have been attributed

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Wollaston, William

After studies at the University of Cambridge, Wollaston became a schoolteacher in Birmingham (1682) and soon afterward was ordained a priest. In 1688 he inherited the major part of his

Monday, April 26, 2004

Bohr, Niels

In full  Niels Henrik David Bohr  Danish physicist who was the first to apply the quantum theory, which restricts the energy of a system to certain discrete values, to the problem of atomic and molecular structure. For this work he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He developed the so-called Bohr theory of the atom and liquid model of the atomic nucleus.

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Fernández De Avellaneda, Alonso

Probably the pseudonym of the otherwise unknown author of Segundo tomo del ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (1614; “Second Book of the Ingenious Knight Don Quixote of La Mancha”), a fraudulent sequel to the first volume of Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote (1605). In the 59th chapter of the second volume of Don Quixote (1615), Cervantes mocks the spurious book. Suggestions of the author's

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Ayrshire Whitework

In embroidery, a type of drawn thread work done in white thread on white material. Although similar work had been executed earlier and in other centres (for example, in 13th- and 14th-century Germany) and other examples are known from the intervening period, whitework became associated with the county (shire) of Ayr in Scotland after 1780, when it became a centre for the manufacture

Friday, April 23, 2004


Kotamadya (municipality) and kabupaten (regency), Jawa Timur provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Malang regency has an area of 3,391 square miles (8,782 square km). It is principally agricultural and known for its production of vegetables, fruits, and flowers. Malang is located on a plateau between Mount Kawi (8,697 feet [2,651 m]) and the Tengger Mountains, and the city enjoys a comfortable climate. The

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Economic Affairs

For the American

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Lutetian Stage

The stage's name is derived from Lutetia, the ancient Latin name for Paris, France, whose surrounding area is usually considered

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

Banda Sea

Bahasa Indonesia  Laut Banda  portion of the western South Pacific, bounded by the southern islands of the Moluccas of Indonesia (Alor, Timor, Wetar, Babar, Tanimbar, and Kai on the south and Ceram, Buru, and Sula on the north). It occupies a total of 180,000 square miles (470,000 square km) and opens to the Flores (west), Savu (southwest), Timor (south), Arafura (southeast), and Ceram and Molucca (north) seas. The sea's North Banda Basin,


Also called  The Book Of Tobias,  apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) that found its way into the Roman Catholic canon via the Septuagint. A religious folktale and a Judaicized version of the story of the grateful dead, it relates how Tobit, a pious Jew exiled to Nineveh in Assyria, observed the precepts of Hebrew Law by giving alms and by burying the dead. In spite of his good works,

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Tasmania, Soils

Most Tasmanian soils are leached, acidic, poorly drained, high in humus, and low in fertility. Least fertile and most extensive are the soils, especially the moor peats, of the west and northeast. Fertile areas occur extensively in the northwest and locally elsewhere, notably in the northeast. Brown earths occupy the drier areas east of the Central Plateau; black earths,

Termier, Henri-françois-émile

Termier was a geologist for the Morocco Mine Service from 1925 until 1940, when he became head of the Morocco Geological Service; in 1945 he became a professor at the University of Algiers and in 1955 joined the Sorbonne, where he became the chairman

Friday, April 16, 2004

Augustus, Caesar

The death in 12 BC of Lepidus enabled Augustus finally to succeed him as the official head of the Roman religion, the chief priest (pontifex maximus). In the same year, Agrippa, too, died. Augustus compelled his widow, Julia, to marry Tiberius against both their wishes. During the next three years, however, Tiberius was away in the field, reducing Pannonia (Yugoslavia and Hungary)

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Don Pacifico Affair

David Pacifico (known as Don Pacifico) was a Portuguese Jew who, having been born in Gibraltar in 1784, was a British subject. After serving as Portuguese consul in Morocco (1835–37) and then as consul-general in Greece, he settled in Athens as a merchant. In

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Biblical Literature, The Ascension of Isaiah

According to the Lives of the Prophets, Jeremiah was stoned to death and Isaiah was sawn asunder. These two legends are reflected in two originally Jewish works. The Ascension of Isaiah, in which the martyrdom of Isaiah is narrated, is as a whole extant only in Ethiopic, translated from a Greek original, which itself is also known from fragments. The book contains important

Tuesday, April 13, 2004


Poisoning by the toxin, called botulinus toxin, or botulin, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. This poisoning results most frequently from the eating of improperly sterilized canned foods containing the toxin. C. botulinum bacteria cannot survive in the presence of oxygen and normally live in the soil, where they form heat-resistant spores that may contaminate

Monday, April 12, 2004

Amorphous Solid

Solids and liquids are both forms of condensed matter; both are composed of atoms in close proximity to each other. But their properties are, of course, enormously different. While a solid material has both a well-defined

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Henderson, Thomas

Henderson was elected

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Manaslu I

Also called  Kutang I  one of the world's highest mountains (26,781 feet [8,163 m]); it lies in the Himalayas of north Nepal, 38 miles (61 km) north of the town of Gurkha. The summit of this snow- and glacier-covered peak was first reached on May 9 and 11, 1956, by two separate Japanese parties.

Friday, April 09, 2004

Salih, 'ali 'abd Allah

Salih attended the local Qur'anic school and joined the army at age 16. Four years later, on September 26, 1962, he led a military coup that replaced the Islamic monarch of North Yemen with

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Mauritania, European intervention

In 1442 Portuguese mariners rounded Cape Blanc, and in 1448 they founded the fort of Arguin, whence traders derived gold, gum arabic, and slaves. Later French and English shipping frequented Portendick, and the French settled at Saint-Louis at the mouth of the Sénégal River. In 1858 Colonel Louis Faidherbe waged a military campaign that ended Moorish domination in lower Sénégal.

Vigny, Alfred-victor, Comte De

Poet, dramatist, and novelist who was the most philosophical of the French Romantic writers.

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Brostrom, Axel Ludvig

As a young man Brostrom joined a shipping company and later became an owner-captain in the lake shipping trade. In 1870 he converted a sailing ship, Activ, into a steamship, which proved so successful

Monday, April 05, 2004

Vigny, Alfred-victor, Comte De

Obsessions are recurring or persistent thoughts, images, or impulses that, rather than being voluntarily produced, seem to invade a person's consciousness despite his

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Osler-rendu-weber Disease

Also called  Rendu-osler-weber Disease, or Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia,   a hereditary disorder causing bleeding from local capillary lesions. The disorder is classed as a type of purpura. In the disease, capillaries (minute blood vessels) in the fingertips and around the oral and nasal cavities are enlarged and have unusually thin walls; they fill with bright red (well-oxygenated) blood and are easily broken by accidental bumping or jarring,

Saturday, April 03, 2004


An institutionalized religious movement whose members attempt to practice works that are above and beyond those required of both the laity and the spiritual leadership of their religions. Generally celibate and universally ascetic, the monastic individual separates himself or herself from general society either by living as a hermit or anchorite (religious

Friday, April 02, 2004


The status, prior to 1939, of each of the British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Eire, and Newfoundland. Although there was no formal definition of dominion status, a pronouncement by the Imperial Conference of 1926 described Great Britain and the dominions as “autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status,

Thursday, April 01, 2004


(Sanskrit: “Treatise on the Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana”), relatively brief but influential exposition of the fundamentals of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy and faith. Though the work is said to be that of the Sanskrit poet Asvaghosa, there are no extant Sanskrit copies of The Awakening of Faith (as it is known in the modern translation by D.T. Suzuki) and no references to