Wednesday, March 31, 2004


Formerly  General and Municipal Workers' Union (GMWU)  third largest trade union in Great Britain and one of the two giant general unions (the other being the Transport and General Workers' Union). The General and Municipal Workers' Union was formed in 1924 by the merger of the National Union of Gas and General Workers, the National Amalgamated Union of Labour, and the Municipal Employees' Association. From the start the union's

Tuesday, March 30, 2004


City, western Rondônia estado (“state”), western Brazil. It lies along the Mamoré River. Primarily a transportation centre, Guajará-Mirim handles traffic in rubber, lumber, babassu palm oil, and other forest products taken in the surrounding area. It has a small port for shallow-draft vessels and is the southern terminus of a railroad built in 1913 to carry products out of Bolivia

Monday, March 29, 2004

Biblical Literature, Habakkuk

The Book of Habakkuk, the eighth book of the Twelve (Minor) Prophets, was written by a prophet difficult to identify. He may have been a professional prophet of the Temple from the 7th century BCE (probably between 605–597 BCE). Containing three chapters, Habakkuk combines lamentation and oracle. In the first chapter, he cries out for Yahweh to help his people: “O Lord, how long shall I cry for

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Oeuvre, Théâtre De L'

French Symbolist theatre founded in Paris in 1893 by Aurélien Lugné-Poë and directed by him until 1929. An actor and stage manager with André Antoine's Théâtre Libre, Lugné-Poë was introduced to Symbolist theatre at Paul Fort's Théâtre d'Art in the 1890s. When Fort retired from the theatre, Lugné-Poë assumed leadership in Symbolist production by opening what would become the Thé

Saturday, March 27, 2004

Carissimi, Giacomo

Following brief appointments at Tivoli and Assisi, Carissimi settled in Rome in the late 1620s as director of music at the Church of Sant'Apollinare and retained this post until he died. Although not an operatic composer,


Diuretic drug and major alkaloidal constituent of cocoa. Theobromine is a xanthine alkaloid, a methylxanthine, as are caffeine and theophylline, but it differs from them in having little stimulatory action upon the central nervous system. The stimulant effect of cocoa results from the caffeine that it contains rather than from the theobromine.

Thursday, March 25, 2004


The Sant Mat tradition was established by Param Sant Ji Maharaj (1818–78), who taught surat shabd yoga, the yoga of the “Sound Current.” He believed that the universe was created by a series of sound waves emanating from the transcendent Divine

Wednesday, March 24, 2004


Also called  Sea Sparrow,   any of six species of small seabirds of the family Alcidae (order Charadriiformes). They breed primarily in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific; some winter as far south as Japan and Mexico. Auklets in breeding plumage differ from the related murrelets in having plumes and other head ornaments, including brightly coloured bill plates like those

Monday, March 22, 2004


English  Lower Franconia  Regierungsbezirk (administrative district), northwestern corner of Bavaria Land (state), central Germany. Unterfranken is bordered by Thuringia Land to the northeast, the Regierungsbezirke of Oberfranken (Upper Franconia) and Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) to the east, Baden-Württemberg Land to the south, and Hesse Land to the west. The district occupies an area

Philanthropic Foundation

A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization, with assets provided by donors and managed by its own officials and with income expended for socially useful purposes. Foundation, endowment, and charitable trust are terms used interchangeably to designate these organizations, which can be traced far back in history. They existed in the ancient civilizations of the

Sunday, March 21, 2004


In astrology, 1 of the 12 sectors, or divisions, of the celestial sphere. See horoscope.

Grabbe, Christian Dietrich

Grabbe studied law in Leipzig and made unsuccessful attempts at acting and directing in Berlin. After quarrelling with the poet Heinrich Heine and members of Young Germany (a politically radical literary movement) and failing in attempts to get

Friday, March 19, 2004

Military Affairs

(For a comparison of approximate strengths of selected regular armed forces, see Table III.) The issue of homosexuals in the armed forces made headlines in the U.S. throughout the year. The new president, Bill Clinton, was forced to back away from a campaign pledge to drop the 50-year ban on homosexuals serving in the military when he immediately ran into opposition within

Thursday, March 18, 2004


Shaped like a crescent reaching from the mouth of the Roia River to that of the Magra and from the French frontier to Tuscany, Liguria is dominated by the Maritime Alps as far as the Cadibona

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Kahnweiler, Daniel-henry

Trained for a career in finance, Kahnweiler instead chose art and settled in Paris, where he opened a small gallery in 1907. He became interested in the work of several young artists

Tuesday, March 16, 2004


Town, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. Connected by road and rail with Calcutta and Howrah, it is an important trade centre for rice, legumes, sugarcane, potatoes, and coconuts; cotton weaving is the major industry. An annual fair held in honour of a Muslim saint is attended by both Muslims and Hindus. Barasat was constituted a municipality in 1869. Pop. (1981) 69,586.

Monday, March 15, 2004

Farley, Harriet

Farley grew up from 1819 in Atkinson, New Hampshire, where she was educated in the local academy headed by her father. In 1837 she made her way to Lowell and obtained

Sunday, March 14, 2004


City, seat (1831) of Allen county, northwestern Ohio, U.S. The city is situated on the Ottawa River, 88 miles (142 km) northwest of Columbus. Laid out in 1831, its name (from Lima, Peru) was chosen by lot by being drawn from a hat. Oil was discovered nearby in 1885, and by the turn of the century Lima was the centre of oil fields, which are now, for the most part, exhausted; the city remains, however, an important

Saturday, March 13, 2004


The modes of Greek antiquity were placed by theorists in orderly fashion within a larger context. Although the modes were a series of seven-note diatonic scales (i.e., containing five whole tones and two semitones), the nucleus of the tone system was the tetrachord—a group of four consecutive notes (as, from C to F on the piano) comprising the interval of a fourth. Except in

Friday, March 12, 2004

Cunningham, Glenn

At the age of 7, Cunningham and his older brother Floyd were badly burned in a schoolhouse fire; Floyd died and Glenn was not expected to be able to walk. Cunningham overcame this adversity, running—and winning—races in high school,

Thursday, March 11, 2004

Prévost D'exiles, Antoine-françois, Abbé

Originally published as the final installment of a seven-volume novel, Mémoires et aventures d'un homme de qualité qui s'est retiré du monde (1728–31; “Memories

Wednesday, March 10, 2004


Also called  Bisayas  island group, central Philippines. The Visayas group consists of seven large and several hundred smaller islands clustered around the Visayan, Samar, and Camotes seas. They have a total area of 23,582 square miles (61,077 square km). The seven main islands are Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Masbate, Negros, Panay, and Samar (qq.v.). These islands and their smaller neighbours make up the central group

Monday, March 08, 2004


According to tradition, the Dagomba kingdom was founded by northern invaders in the 14th century.

Sunday, March 07, 2004

Avoidance Behaviour

Type of activity seen in animals exposed to adverse stimuli, in which the tendency to act defensively is stronger than the tendency to attack. The underlying implication that a single neural mechanism is involved (such as a specific part of the brain, which, under electrical stimulation, seems to inflict punishment) remains only a hypothesis. Clearly, the same kinds

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Cromwell, Thomas, Earl Of Essex, Baron Cromwell Of Okeham

Principal adviser (1532–40) to England's Henry VIII, chiefly responsible for establishing the Reformation in England, for the dissolution of the monasteries, and for strengthening the royal administration. At the instigation of his enemies he was eventually arrested for heresy and treason and executed.

Friday, March 05, 2004


City, seat (1853) of Alachua county, north-central Florida, U.S., about 70 miles (115 km) southwest of Jacksonville. The Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto marched through the area in 1539, and settlement eventually developed around a trading post known as Hog Town (established 1830). In 1853 the city was laid out as the county seat and named for General Edmund Pendleton Gaines, a commander during the

Thursday, March 04, 2004


Coastal city, southeastern Victoria, Australia. It lies along the Thomson River near the latter's junction with the Macalister. Sale is the major regional centre for East Gippsland, an irrigated area of intensive farming and livestock raising. Founded in 1845, the settlement was named after Sir Robert (“Fighting Bob”) Sale, a British general who fought in India. It grew as an

Wednesday, March 03, 2004

Chan Chan

Great ruined and abandoned pre-Inca city on the present-day northern Peruvian coast, the capital of the Chimú kingdom (c. AD 1200–1400). The site is about 300 miles (480 km) north of Lima in the Moche Valley, between the Pacific and the city of Trujillo. The ruins, which cover nearly 14 square miles (36 square km), are in good condition because the area is rainless. The city was watered by irrigation ditches,

Tuesday, March 02, 2004

West Greenland Current

Cool flow of water proceeding northward along the west coast of Greenland. See Greenland Current.

Monday, March 01, 2004

Faience Fine

Fine white English lead-glazed earthenware, or creamware, imported into France from about 1730 onward. Staffordshire “salt glaze” was imported first, followed by the improved Wedgwood “Queen's ware” and the Leeds “cream-coloured ware.” It was cheaper than French faience, or tin-glazed earthenware, and more durable and was therefore subjected to heavy tariffs in 1741 and 1749. A Franco-British